北京教会The Church in Beijing
Nestorian relics found in the Beijing area bear witness to a Christian presence there before the 10th Century.
Towards 1280, the Nestorian monk Rabban Sauma and his young companion Mark left Dadu, name of Beijing under the Mongols, and undertook a long pilgrimage to the West.
In Bagdad, Mark was consecrated Patriarch for all the cities of Cathay. In Rome, Rabban Sauma celebrated a msaa in the eastern rite. He attended the Pope’s msaa and received communion from his hand.
The Franciscan John of Montecorvino arrived in Dadu in 1294 and established a catholic community. In 1307, Pope Clement V appointed him archbishop.
Under the Ming Dynasty(1368-1644), the Franciscan mission disappeared. In 1601,the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci reached Beijing. A new Catholic community took shape. Christianity was not officially recognized, but the Jesuits were allowed to stay in Beijing for their scientific services. Adam Schall, then Ferdinand Verbiest headed the Bureau of astronomy.
In 1684, French Jesuits arrived in Beijing. They built the Beitang in 1693.
A century later, the Lazarists took over the Mission from the Jesuits who had been dissolved. In 1820, the Chinese Lazarist Matthew Xue became superior of the Mission but the Beitang was seized by the government a few years later. Matthew Xue moved to xiwanzi in Mongolia.
Under the pressure of colonial powers, Catholic life was protected by the Beijing Convention in 1860. Bishop Mouly, who resided at the Beitang, developed Church activities with the help of religious congregations.
In 1900, the Boxers set fire to the churches in Beijing, but failed to seize the Beitang where 3000 Catholics had found shelter.
In the first half of the 20th century, Beijing became a center of catholic activity and learning with the foundation ofFuren University, the Printing Press at the Beitang, various seminaries and schools.
After 1949, the Catholic community in Beijing again suffered losses in the name of “independence” and “struggle against imperialism”. The few churches left open were closed in 1966 during the Cultural Revolution.
The Nantang wsa first to reopen in 1971, but to foreigners only. From 1978 onwards, Chinese Catholics were again allowed to practice their faith openly and the Beijing Churches slowly reopened.
Today, the catholic population in Beijing should be around 40,000. Five churches are open in the city and at least six in the suburbs. There are two major seminaries, one national and the ofther diocesan.
1307-1328孟高维诺Johannes de Monte Corvino OFM
1333-1338尼古拉Nicolas de Botras OSF
1696-1721康（伊大仁）Bernardin della Chiesa OSF
1725-1734方济主教Francois de la purification OSF
1740-1757索智能Polycarpe de souza SJ
1778-1781安德义Damascenus Salutti, OSA
1782-1808汤士选Alexander de Gouvea OSF
1818-1826高守谦Verissimo Monteiro da Serra CM
1826-1838毕学源代理Gaetan Pires-Pereira CM
1838-1846赵署理Jean de Franca Castro e Moura CM
1846-1856孟振生代理Joseph-Martial Mouly CM
1856-1868孟振生Joseph-Martial Mouly CM
1868-1870苏发旺Edmund-Francois Guiery CM
1870-1884田类斯Louis-Gabriel Delaplace CM
1884-1890戴济世Francois Tagliabue CM
1890-1899都士良J.-B.-Hippolyte Sarthou CM
1889-1905樊国梁Pierre-Marie Alphonse Favier CM
1905-1924林懋德Stanislaus Jarlin CM
1946-田耕莘枢机Cardinal Thomas Tian
1948年北京总教区统计：1948 Beijing Archdiocese Statistics
政区划分：六个城区，Civil administrative districts:6, plus
主教：李山 Bishop: Li Shan(现任)；傅铁山（1979年12月）Bishop: Fu Tieshan(Dec.1979)（已故)
电话：010-6607 0325 Tel.: 010-6607 0325
秘书长：赵景荣神父Secretary: Fr.Zhao Jingrong
电话：010-6605 5462 Tel.: 010-6605 5462
1986年12月22日受祝圣的：ord. On Dec.22,1986:
刘国志，高阳，Liu Guozhi, Gao Yang,
陈万利，王宝发Chen Wanli, Wang Baofa
1989年12月21日受祝圣的：ord. On Dec.21,1989:
李山，任力军，Li Shan, Ren Lijun,
石惠文（已故），Shi Huiwen(passed away)
赵建敏，吴履信Zhao Jianmin, Wu Luxin
1991年6月7日受祝圣的：褚汉雨ord. On June7,1991:Chu Hanyu
1993年4月25日受祝圣的：ord. On Apr.25,1993:
王学群，陈世福，Wang Xuequn, Chen Shifu,
张继雄，宋占平（内蒙）Zhang Jixiong, Song Zhanping,
刘永斌，韩斌国（山西）Liu Yongbin, Han Binguo
1993年12月5日受祝圣：ord. On Dec.5,1993:
赵庆龙，冯国新，Zhao Qinglong, Feng Gouxin,
韩文生，罗春海，Han Wensheng, Luo Chunhai,
李德，杨科，庞文贤Li De, Yang Ke, Pang Wenxian
1994年受祝圣：卢圣科ord. In 1994u Shengke
1995年4月16日受祝圣：陈书杰ord. On April.16,1995:Chen Shujie
1995年6月25日受祝圣：刘伟斌，ord. On June.25,1995iu Weibin,
仵建超，赵满全。Wu Jianchao, Zhao Manquan.
1996年3月17日受祝圣：ord. On March.17,1996:
陈燕宾，郭四廷，Chen Yanbin, Guo Siting,
孙徐森，鲍静波，Sun Xusen, Bao Jingbo,
李先敬，宋占军，Li Xianjing, Song Zhanjun,
1998年6月25日受祝圣：ord. On June 25,1998:
张继恒，甄雪斌Zhang Jiheng, Zhen Xuebin
1999年4月25日受祝圣：ord. On April 25,1999:
刘振田，刘哲Liu Zhentian, Liu Zhe
1999年10月7日受祝圣：ord. On October 7,1999:
张洪波，肖恩孝，Zhang Hongbo, Xiao Enxiao,
刘谦逊，刘保卫，Liu Qianxun, Liu Baowei,
高占飞，马照，贺斌Gao Zhanfei, Ma Zhao, He Bin
2000年10月28日受祝圣：ord. On October 28,2000:
王和平，候天祥Wang Heping, Hou Tianxiang
杨宇，石慧敏Yang Yu, Shi Huimin
教堂：十四座（市内五座 郊区九座）Churches:14(5 in town, 9 in the suburbs)
Address:141Qianmen xidajie, Xuanwumennei,BEIJING
电话：010-6603 7139 Tel.: 010-6603 7139
电车：102,105,109汽车：44,15 Trolley: 102,105,109 Bus: 44,15
地铁站：宣武门Subway station: Xuanwumen
神父：冯国新，张天路Priests: Feng Guoxin, Zhang Tianlu
上智编译馆Sapientia Press House
馆长：赵建敏神父Dir.:Fr.Peter Zhao jianmin
电话：010-6606 8969, 6602 5221 Tel.: 010-6606 8969, 6602 5221
传真：010-6602 5221 Fax: 010-6602 5221
怎样去？How to go there?
Take the subway from Beijing railway station or from any other station and come out at the station Xuanwumen. Looking around, you will see the church.
南堂历史简介Brief History of Nantang
South Church is the oldest of all the Catholic churches in Beijing.
Matteo Ricci built a small chapel on this site in 1605, during the 33rd year of the reign of the Emperor Wanli.(Ming dynasty).Small in scale, it was replaced by a larger building in 1610.
This second church was simple and unimpressive, but it did mark the beginning of Christian missionary work in Beijing .It became known to the people as the Hall of the Lord of Heaven.
In 1650,Adam Schall erected a large and commanding church structure on a piece of property given to him by the Imperial Court. At the time, he had been appointed director of the Imperial Bureau of Astronomy by the regent Dorgon. The length of the new church was 25.5metres,and it was 14.5metres wide. It was named the Church of the Immaculate Conception. The yard of the church was very broad and it housed a priests Residence, a conservatory, a storehouse for equipment, as well as a library.
In 1690,Beijing became a diocese with bishop Bernardin della Chiesa, Franciscan, who designated South Church to be his cathedral church. Due to circumstances of the times, he never got to rdside there himself, but in subsequent years, it did become the official residence of the bishops who succeeded him.
Unfortunately, in 1775, two earthquakes and a fire totally destroyed the church built by Schall. Emperor Qian Long donated 20,000ounces of silver to have it rebuilt.
The last bishop to reside in South Church was Gaetan Pires-Pereira, who was also an official at the imperial court. The number of foreign missioners continued to dwindle due to death or departures and by 1826, the Bishop was the only foreign resident left in Beijing.
He continued on alone there for another 12years, dying on 2 November 1838 at the age of 71.A bishop from the Eastern Orthodox church presided at his funeral, and he was buried in Shalan.
In 1860, South Church reopened after being completely renovated, but the episcopal seat was moved to North Church. Having been reduced in rank, South Church became the headquarters of the society of St Joseph, whose members ran the Wan Sheng Hospital.
On 14 June 1900, South Church and its surrounding structures were burned to the ground by the Boxers.
The church was rebuilt in 1904, along with its adjacent buildings; this is South Church as we know it today. The great iron crucifix on the west wall of the present church is 3.8 metres in height and dates back over three hundred years.
South Church once again became the bishop’s seat when Bishop Yao Guangyu became the first independently elected and consecrated bishop of the Beijing Diocese in 1959. Nantang was closed down during the Cultural Revolution. It was formally reopened in March 1979. But since 1971, religious services were held for foreign diplomats and visitors and overseas Chinese.
北京东堂（若瑟堂）Beijing Dongtang(St. Joseph)
电话：010-6524 0634 Tel.: 010-6524 0634
神父：李山，刘保卫Priestsi Shan, Liu Baowei
乘车路线：103,104,108东安市畅Trolley: 103,104,108Dong an shichang
怎样去？How to go there?
From Beijing Hotel, take the avenue Wangfujing and walk northwards 10 minutes. You see the church on your right side.
东堂历史简介Brief history of Dongtang
East Church was originally established by Louis Buglio and Gabriel de Magalhaens, two Jesuit priests who began their missionary activity in Sichuan Province at the end of the Ming and beginning of Qing dynastied. Arrested in Sichuan, they were taken to Beijing in the custody of Qing soldiers, where they were placed as servants in the household of an official named Su.
Both men became well-known for their virtue and learning, and their modest behaviour. They preached the gospel to their fellow-wervants working in the household, with the result that many were converted and baptized. Even some of the officials’wives were baptized. The priests were highly respected and were not treated as prisoners but were allowed to come and go freely.
The number of converts increased during the next few years, and the priests were given duties that tool them outside the official palace. In time, they were able to purchase a building to serve as a chapel for their growing congregation.
In the twelfth year of the Shun Zhi Emperor(1655), the Emperor gave them a courtyard, where they built a modest church and dedicated it to St. Joseph. This is the site on which the present East Church is located. It was the second church built in the city of Beijing and became known as the East Church.
In the earthquake of 1720 the church collapsed, but it was rebuilt the following year.Among the treasured possessions of the church interior, the original paintings done by the famous Jesuit artist Castiglione were destroyed.
In the year 1807, during the twelfth year of the Jiaqing Emperor, the missioners decided to move their more valuable books from their residence to a safer place. Fearing to draw unnecessary attention during the day, they worked by night. Through carelessness, someone knocked a burning oil lamp onto the bookcases, causing a fire that soon reduced the residence to ashes. The church, however, escaped with only minor damage.
The two priests in charge of East Church at the time(their Chinese names were Fu Wengao and Li Gongzhen),wrote a formal report of the accident to the Emperor, humbly requesting punishment. The underlying hope was that the Emperor might contribute to the rebuilding of the church as did his predecessor the Qian Long Emperor when South Church met a similar fate. The request was refused; instead, Fathers Fu, Li and the other priests in residence were ordered to move to South Church, and the church property with all its buildings was confiscated. While the damage to the church itself was not serious, the building was ordered to be demolished and East Church was abandoned.
From its original erection by Buglio to the year of its demolition, the church had existed for 159 years. By 1860when all properties were returned to the Catholic Church, all that remained of East Church was a gate with nothing but rubble insid. The site was cleaned up, and a set of low buildings was erected to serve as a temporary chapel and quarters.
Then in 1884, at the time of Bishop Louis Gabriel Delaplace(1820-1884), a large sum of money was raised to build a new church in the Romanesque style. This church was far more stately and elegant in appearance than its two sister churches in the North and South.
But after only ten years, it too was burned to the ground by the Boxers on 13 June 1900. The present church was built to replace it in 1904.
北京北堂（救世主堂）Beijing Beitang(St. Saviour)
电话：010-6617 5198 Tel.: 010-6617 5198
公共汽车：55,14；电车：103，109 Bus: 55,14；trolleybus: 103，109
神父：刘永斌010-6613 2240肖恩孝010-6613 2259
Priests:Liu Yongbin010-6613 2240；Xiao Enxiao010-6613 2259
Sunday Mass:A.M.6.00(latin),7.00,8.00 P.M.6.00
怎样去？How to go there?
From the north gate of the Imperial Palace or from the main gate of Beihai Park, walk westwards 10to 15 minutes along the bus route. Look at your right side: you will see the church towers at abour 200 yards in the street Xishiku.
北京教区若瑟修女会Beijing St Joseph Congregation
At the back of the Beitang, revived in 1986. Leadership Council formed on Sept 14, 1996. Professed sisters:48.
委员：张金华Council members:Zhang Jinhua
北堂历史简介Brief History of Beitang
The first site of North Church was on the west bank of Lake Canchikou, almost diagonally opposite the present National Library. This site was given to the Jesuits by the Qing Dynasty Kangxi Emperor as a token of gratitude to Jean de Fontaney(1643-1710)and Claude de Visdelou(1665-1737)who had brought about his immediate recovery from a malaria attack through the use of western medicines.
The missionaries soon completed the building of a church there, and the Emperor presented them with a pair of ceremonial scrolls to mark the occasion. The scrolls were entitled ” The True Origin of All Things”,and the calligraphy was in the Emperor’s own hand.(The scrolls are no longer in existence; those displayed later are not the originals.)
The church, which took four years to build, was dedicated on 9 December 1703, and given the name of “Church of the Holy Saviour”.In addition to the church, the Jesuits erected two smaller buildings, an astronomical observatory and a library as part of the complex.
After the Jesuit Society was dissolved by the Pope in 1773, the Lazarists took over this “French Mission”towards the end of the century.
In 1827,during the 7th year of his reign, the Dao Guang Emperor issued a decree confiscating North Church. The priest in charge was then a Chinese Lazarist. The Church property was sold to a court official named Yu, who ordered the church to be demolished. Thus did this impressive edifice which had stood for over 135 years, quickly disappear from the local landscape.
The government of the Xian Feng Emperor returned the property to the Catholic Church in 1860, and six years later a new church, wider and taller than the original, was erected on the same site. The second North Church was 50metres in length and 21.3metres in width.
When, in 1887, the imperial household extended the boundaries of the palace area, North Church fell within the confines of the Forbidden City. As a result, the church had to move to ist present location at Xishiku. A new church, along with a bishop’s residence, a seminary and a nursery were all erected on the new location that same year.
The new church was even larger than the previous one, measuring 80 by 21 metres and extending to a height of 22metres.
The bell tower was damaged by shell-fire during the Boxer Uprising in 1900, but it was later repaired and enlarged to its resent size. The church was besieged for two months by the Boxers. 3000Catholics took refuge in it, under the protection of the French bishop Mgr Favier. A stone in his memory can be seen to day in the chapel north of the church.
North church became the cathedral church of the diocese after 1860, when it replaced South Church as the seat of the bishop.
Joseph Mouly(1807-1868)was the first bishop to take up residence there. During the course of the next 100 years, eight bishops and four auxiliary bishops lived in North Church, all of whom were non-Chinese.
After the Second World War and the defeat of Japan, it became the home of Thomas Tian Gengxin, the first Chinese Cardinal, who was appointed Archbishop of Beijing in 1946.
On 12 February 1985, the Chinese Government announced that it would return Beitang, the biggest Church in Beijing to the Catholics before 1 May 1985. This church was opened in December 1985. The school occupying the house was moved to new premises.
In 1989, Beijing Diocesan Seminary was transferred from Xibeiwang to the Beitang premises. In September 1992, the seminary again moved to Pingfang, east of the city.
电话：010-6615 6619 Tel.: 010-6615 6619
西堂历史简介Brief History of Xitang
West Church, which is located on the south side of Xizhimennei Street, was the last of the four major churches to be established in Beijing. It has a history dating back over 200years.
In the 44th year of the Kang Xi Emperor, Archbishop Carlo Tommaso Maillard de Tournon was sent to China as a papal legate to further good relations with the Qing Emperor. Among the members of Tournon’s delegation were a Father Pedrini and two other priests. They were later employed in minor capacities by the Kangxi Emperor. Pedrini was engaged to teach Western Learning inside the royal court to one of the princes, who later became the Yong Zheng Emperor.
In 1723 Pedrini purchased the present property at Xizhimen and built several residences there, along with a church which he named Our Lady of Seven sorrows. Pedrini was a member of the Vincentian Society, and he offered both church and residences to priests from a variety of congregations who had come to do mission work in China.
When Pedrini died in December of 1746at the age of 77, he was buried in the small West Church Catholic cemetery. The cemetery property in later years became the site for the headquarters for two orders of missionary nuns: the Daughters of St. Joseph and the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul.
In 1811 the imperial government ordered that only those with duties at the court were allowed to reside in Beijing city. The authorities then completely dismantled West Church, and so the church built 89 years before by Pedrini was demolished.
1860年，西堂与其它各教会的房地归还教会，经孟振生（Joseph Martial Mouly）主教在1867年又重建大堂及住房。1900年6月14日，圣堂与住房被义和团焚毁。十二年后，即1912年，始得重建并奉圣母圣衣为主保。
In 1860, after the church properties were returned, bishop Joseph Martial Mouly rebuilt West Church, dedicating it in 1867. On 14 June 1900 the church and residence were again destroyed, this time by fire. Twelve years later, the church was once more rebuilt and re-dedicated under the name of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.
The government has returned the church to Catholics on Dec.23,1994.
圣弥额尔天主教堂Saint Michael Church
地址：长安街正义路南东交民巷Ad.:Zhengyilu Nan Dongjiao minxiang
神父：高扬，马照Priest: Gao Yang, Ma Zhao
电话：010-6513 5170 Tel.: 010-6513 5170
Sunday Mass: A.M.7.00(latin),8.00P.M.6.00
怎样去？How to go there?
Cross the road to the south of Beijing Hotel, enter Zhengyi Rd. Walk southwards for 10 min. You see the church on your left.
Saint Michael Church was built in 1902. Of gothic style, the church can contain 500 people. Before the liberation, it was used by the foreigners living in the concession. The Foreign embassies were gathered in this district. The church was closed in 1958. During the Cultural Revolution, the cross on the Church tower was bent down and left hanging for years The street was named”Anti-Imperialism Street”. The church was used as a warehouse for a Primary School. After two years of reqair work, the church was reopened to the faithful on Dec.23,1989.
圣德肋撒堂（南岗子）St Theresa Church(Nangangzi)
神父：罗春海Priests: Luo Chunhai
电话：010-6714 3341 Tel.: 010-6714 3341
公车8路，车站：培新街Bus 8, Stop: Peixinjie
弥撒：主日：六时半，七时半Mass: Sunday 6.30,7.30 am
平日：六时半Weekdays 6.30 am
怎样去？How to go there?
The church is in a small lane, some2 km south of Beijing Railway Station, From Dongdan take bus 8 down Chongwenmen Avenue. The bus turns left into Guangqumen Rd. Stop at Pixinjie and walk 5 min. southeast in Xingfu dajie. Yongshengxiang is on your right.
北京教区神哲学院Beijing Major Seminary
Address: Haidianqu,Qinghezhen,248 Houbajiacun BEIJING
修院电话：010-8575 8602 Tel.: 010-8575 8602
修院传真：010-8575 7597 Fax: 010-8575 7597
常务副院长：孙尚恩Vice-superior: Sun Shang’en
副院长：赵树声神父：65756095 Vice Sup.: Zhao Shusheng 65756095
院长助理：甄雪斌神父：62941537 Assistant: Zhen Xuebin 62941537
神师：韩文生神父 Spiritual Director: Han Wensheng
教务主任：刘哲神父：65716139 Dean of Studies: Liu Zhe 65716139
历史教师：侯天祥神父：62948325 History Prof.: Hou Tianxiang 62948325
Beijing Major Seminary has been in operation since 1981. The seminary was first located in the north-west of Beijing, Xibeiwang Village, Dongbeiwang Commune, using nine rows of low houses built in an orchard of the Protestants.
In July 1989 the Seminary moved to the small building at the rear of the Beitang Church. At the beginning there were only six students. These six seminarians, the first group in China for twenty years, received the first tonsure on 4 September 1983 at the Church of the Immaculate Conception in southern Beijing. Bishop Michael Fu Tieshan officiated at the ceremony.
In September 1992, the seminary moved to Pingfang, north-east of the city. This place being rebuilt as a home for the aged, seminarians again moved in August 2001 to the Beijing north suburbs of Houbajia.
中国天主教神哲学院China Catholic Institute of Philosophy&Theology
Address: Beijing Daxingqu, Xingye Avenue, 5 Shenghe Lane 
电话：010-6923 4442（副院长）Tel.: 010-6923 4442（Vice Sup.）
电话:010-6842 0373 Tel.: 010-6842 0373
Since its opening in Sept. 1983 the National Catholic Seminary was located at 14, Liu Yin Street in the former residence for priests attached to Fu Ren University. Construction works for a new seminary were started at the end of 1989.
The inauguration of the new building has taken place in May 1992. It is located in the Haidian district of the north-west suburbs. A first batch of 62 seminarians started studying theology in the new place. They came from 14 provinces. 44 more students were admitted in 1993, from 21 provinces. The first superior was the bishop of Hanyang, Msgr. Tu Shihua. In 2000, the National Seminary experienced a second transplant to a larger place in Daxing, south-suburbs of Beijing.
In 2003, only the final year of thelolgy studies there. 39 priests followed a course of ongoing formation from March to December.
院长：刘元仁主教010-6923 4443 Superior: Bishop Liu Yuanren, 6923 4443
总务：王玉亮010-6923 4441 Procurator: Wang Yuliang 6923 4441
Dean Studies:Zhao Ziliang, Zhang Yujin 6923 4440
神师：赵庆振，李晶，李增庆 Spiritual Dir.: Zhao Qingzhen, Li Jing, Li Zengqing
图书：李建民 Library: Li Jianmin
礼仪：姚顺 Liturgy: Yao Shun
北京文化，古迹Cultural Historic Sites
北京利玛窦之墓 Matteo Ricci’Tomb
Address: 6 chegongzhuang Ave.C.C.P.Beijing Central Committee School Office.
电话：010-8323355 Tel. 010-8323355
To visit the graveyard, prior arrangements have to be made through a tour guide through the office of the Catholic Patriotic Association.
Matteo Ricci was born in 1552 in Macerata in central Italy. He joined the Society of Jesus at the age of 19. He studied mathematics, astronomy, geography and other sciences, achieving brilliant scores. His teacher was sent by the Jesuit Society to evangelise China. He arrived in Macao, small peninsula in the southern province of Guangdong and went on to Zhaoqing(1583)and Shaozhou(now Shaoguan)6 years later. He also visited Nanjing.
In 1601 Ricci was given permission to stay in the capital. While preaching the gospel, Ricci also taught science and technology promoting east-west cultural exchanges. The”Elements”(of Euclides Geometry)which Ricci and Xu Guanqi, an outstanding Ming scientist and minister of rites, jointly translated, spread the knowledge of plane geometry in China.
The “Great Map of Ten Thousand Countries”which Ricci produced in China showed the geography of the modern world. The Jesuit also brought the first globe to China, as well as the theories of longitude and latitude.
At the same time, Ricci introduced China and her ancient civilization to the West.
He translated the “Four Books”into Latin with annotations. Especially noteworthy is his history of the Introduction of Christianity in China(Fonti Ricciane)which gave an introduction to Chinese politics, economy, ideology, geography, history, science and technology, culture, religion, customs and habits.
Ricci wrote and translated many books into Chinese. In addition to 7 or 8 scientific texts, he authored”On Friendship”,”The Twenty-Five Words”and”Western Methods of Memory”,”The Secure Treatise on God”and”The Ten Paradoxes”which attempted to blend the Catholic doctrine with Confucian thinking.
Ricci died in Beijing in May 1610 and was granted a burial place in the city suburbs by imperial order. For 28 years he had lived and worked in China. Today nearly 400 years have passed, yet the tablet with the words Tomb of Rev.Li, Jesuit, still stands in the cemetery outside Beijing Fucheng Gate. The stone tablets of the Jesuit astronomers Adam Schall and Ferdinand Verbiest can be seen on both sides.
北京观象台The Astronomical Observatory
The Guanxiangtai, Beijing’s Astronomical Observatory, was re-opened to the public on April 1st 1983. It has perhaps the longest recorded history of uninterrupted service of astronomy. It is 200 years older than Greenwich Observatory.
The construction of the Observatory’s present astronomical platform dates back to the early years of the Ming Dynasty(1406).
At that time, Nanjing and another Observatory in operation. Some of the instruments used in the old Nanjing Observatory have been fashioned during the Song and Yuan Dynasties(960-1369). They were cast in Beijing in 1437.
Thus it is that Beijing Observatory built by order of the Ming Emperor, links contemporary research with the great scientific achievements of 700 years ago.
This aspect of Chinese life greatly impressed Matteo Ricci, when he entered China in 1583. The 17th century was marked by the decline of the Ming and the rise of the Manchus. Astronomical research was at a low ebb and the imperial calendar’s shortcomings became evident when several eclipses were wrongly predicted.
In 1606, in answer to pressing requests sent by Ricci, Sabbatino De Ursis, an Italian well equipped in astronomy arrived. Soon after Ricci’s death in 1610, an imperial decree asked the foreign missionaries to present proposals for the reform of the Chinese calendar and to translate European scientific books into Chinese.
De Ursis began working with the great Xu Guangqi and other Chinese scholars. Shortly after the Ming Dynasty was overthrown by the Manchus in 1644, the young Shunzhi Emperor confirmed the German Jesuit Adam Schall in his task of reforming the Imperial calendar. He also appointed him President of the Bureau of Astronomy.
When the Emperor Kangxi came of age and took over the reins of power from the Regent, he made Schall’s assistant, the Belgian Jesuit Ferdinand Verbiest, Director of the Observatory. Upon his death in 1688, Ferdinand Verbiest was given a state funeral by Emperor Kangxi and was buried next to Ricci and Schall.
Their tombs are honoured even to the present day. In 1773, Pope Clement XIV, under pressure from political powers in Europe, suppressed the Society of Jesus. The decree was also made public in Beijing. Here the Austrian, Augustus de Hallerstein, the last Jesuit to be in charge of the Bureau of Astronomy and Mathematics, died the following year.
Soon after, some Lazarist Missionaries arrived to take over from the Jesuits and their presence on the Board of the Bureau continued well into the 19th century.
In 1872, 30 years after coming back to China, the Jesuits founded in Shanghai the Zikawei Observatory. According to one Chineae scholar,the observatory proved to be one of the lasting memories to the work of Catholics in China.
北京相伯学校Beijing Xiangbo School
（位于东堂旁边）(next to Dongtang)
电话：010-6512 7394 Tel.: 010-6512 7394
校长：王金凤 Principal: Wang Jinfeng
Xiangbo School opened its door on 25 May 1985. It was the first Church-run Sparetime school begun in China since 1949. It was named after the former Jesuit priest and deucator, Ma Xiangbo. Ma was born in what today is Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province.
In 1903, Ma Xiangbo established Zhen Dan College in Shanghai and in 1905 Fu Dan College. The latter was the forerunner of the present Fu Dan University.
Xiangbo School achieved great results in training foreign language personnel. They have utilized their knowledge and contributed to the four modernization programmes from their respective positions.
北京郊外教堂Churches in Beijing Suburbs
门头沟后桑峪村Mentougou Housangyucun Catholic
耶稣圣心堂 Church of the Sacred Heart
神父：郭四廷010-61817545 Priest: Guo Siting 010-61817545
永宁乡天主堂Yongning Catholic Church
神父：卞寅 Priest: Bian Yin
电话：010-60172693 Tel.: 010-60172693
西北旺北京教区天主教骨灰堂 Xibeiwang Diocesan columbarium
西三旗北京教区修院Xisanqi Beijing Diocesan Seminary
芦沟桥乡东管头村天主堂 Lugouqiao Dongguantou Catholic Church
神父：陈世福 Priest: Chen Shifu
电话：010-63493436 Tel.: 010-63493436
全国神哲学院 National Catholic Seminary
Address: Beijing Daxingqu, Xingye Avenue, 5 Shenghe Lane
电话：院长010-69234443 Tel.: Superior: 010-69234443
总务010-69234441 Manager: 010-69234441
教务010-69234440 Dean of Studies: 010-69234440
长子营乡牛坊耶稣圣心堂 Niufang Sacred Heart Church
电话：010-80265103 Tel.: 010-80265103
神父：郭文武 Priest: Guo Wenwu
西胡林圣母圣心堂 Xihulin Church of the Im. Heart of Mary
神父：孙永书 Priest: Sun Yongshu
电话：010-89213450 Tel.: 010-89213450
贾后疃天主堂 Jiahoutuan Catholic Church
神父：贺斌 Priest: He Bin
电话：010-61525005 Tel.: 010-61525005
觅子店乡龙庄新天主堂 Longzhuang new church
神父：刘谦逊 Priest: Liu Qianxun
电话：010-80566061 Tel.: 010-80566061
神父：张继雄 Priest: Zhang Jixiong
电话：010-61576404 Tel.: 010-61576404