什么是民族国家|What’s a nation state

“民族”的概念起源于欧洲,在英语中就是“Nation”,与中文里的“国家”是同一个意思,是指一个有统一文化共同体的族群。通常来说,构成一个独立民族的各要素包括:血缘上相近、内部互通的语言、共同的宗教信仰、共同的风俗习惯和起源神话、彼此居住于固定的地理区域内等,并且族群内成员都自发地认为彼此同族,即拥有一致的内部认同。但这些条件在实际上很少有哪些民族能够充分满足,因此现在的民族主要是一个建构出来的政治共同体,即享有相同政治权力的一群人,就可以说是同一个民族。

The concept of “Minzu” originated in Europe, This word is “Nation” in English, which is the same mean as “Guojia” in Chinese, refers to an ethnic group that has a common cultural community. Generally speaking, the elements that constitute an independent nation include: Similar blood, intercommunication languages, common religious beliefs, common customs and origin myths, living in a fixed geographic area, etc., and the members of the ethnic group spontaneously believe that they belong to the same nation, that is, they have consistent internal identity. But in reality, few ethnic groups can fully meet these conditions, Therefore, the modern nation is mainly a constructed political community, that is, a group of people with the same political power can be said to be the same nation.

既然是建构的产物,现代意义上的民族就不是伴随人类文明出现而一直存在的。在民族国家出现之前的中古时代,除未开化的蛮族部落地区是采用简单的习惯法,世界各地成熟的社会结构普遍为封建制度,尤其是中世纪欧洲,那时并没有现在那些有着明确地理边界的民族国家。公元5世纪起,日耳曼人开始改信天主教,基于部落习惯法的封建制度形成。这是由于日耳曼各部落原是依靠武士精英统治,武士是对家庭最直接的保护者,也是土地的直接拥有者,不存在一个中央政府进行干预。当中世纪初期的法兰克王国建立以后,这一传统便延续下来,保障了各地方领主的自治权力。封建领主是土地边界的实际决定者,而非统治国家的至高君主。教会则在封建体系中维持了一个秩序维护者的地位,这是由于罗马帝国衰败之后教会发挥了一个替代政府的角色。在教会获得整个社会广泛尊重的情况下,使得王权受教会的道德约束而不能够将个人权力完全压过众贵族和平民。此后的神圣罗马帝国更是一个封建制度的典范,存在了千年之久,最后沦没于20世纪初的哈布斯堡家族。当时欧洲的各国基督徒君主之间经常彼此联姻,只存在王室贵族与平民阶层,以及因各种职业、宗教等背景而组成的团体跟行会等小共同体,社会稳定而繁荣。那时候,虔心信仰天主跟忠诚于领主是最尊贵的品质。

Since it is a product of construction, a nation in the modern sense does not always exist on the emergence of human civilization. In the Middle Ages before the emergence of the nation state, except for the uncivilized barbarian tribes who just adopted simple customary laws, highly developed societies around the world are implementing the feudal system, especially in medieval Europe, there were no nations with clear geographical boundaries. From the 5th century AD, the Germanic peoples began to convert to Catholicism, a feudal system based on tribal customary law was formed. This is because the Germanic tribes rely on the rule of the warrior elite, the warriors are the most direct protectors of the family and the direct owners of the land, there are no strong central government to intervene. After the establishment of the Frankish kingdom in the early Middle Ages, this tradition continued to protect the autonomous power of local lords. The feudal lords are the actual determinants of the boundaries of the land, not the supreme monarchs that rule the country. The Holy Church maintained the status of an order defender in the feudal system, this is because the Church played a role as an alternative government after the decline of the Roman Empire. Under the circumstances that the Church is widely respected by the entire society, the royal power is restricted by the morality of the Church and cannot completely overwhelm the individual power over the nobles and commoners. Afterwards, the Holy Roman Empire was a model of feudal system, which existed on thousands of years, and finally destruction with the Habsburg family in the early 20th century. At that time, Christian monarchs of various countries in Europe often married each other, and only the royal family and the civilian class existed in the society, there are various religious groups and small communities such as guilds formed by profession, the society is stable and prosperous. At that time, pious belief in God and loyalty to the lords were the most noble qualities.

公元14世纪黑死病在欧洲的泛滥强烈动摇了教会的权威,宣示了中世纪的黄金时代的终结。马丁路德发起的宗教改革运动,让欧洲原本统一的天主教文明发生了教会大分裂,造成欧洲长期的南北对立。北方的众多日耳曼王国成为新教国家,不再受罗马教廷约束,开始谋求国家的强大以彻底摆脱南方的影响。与此同时这种竞争关系又导致了天主教君主的中央集权化,以法国的路易十四为其中代表,寻求富国强兵以跟新教各国争霸。虽然没有像英王亨利八世那样叛教,那些天主教君主们也不再如他们的先王圣路易那般虔信天主,他们也利用城市中产阶级的壮大来排挤教宗的权力,封建制度便也随着教会的衰落而衰落。17世纪的三十年宗教战争之后,因为法兰西王国的背叛,天主教国家再也没有能力消灭北方的叛教者,神圣罗马帝国不得不签订了威斯特伐利亚条约。至此主权国家之间清晰的边界开始变得重要起来,成为未来民族国家的基础。这场近八百万人丧生的宗教战争也让大量的贵族阶层消失,千百年来土地的稳定传承被打破。

The proliferation of the Black Death in Europe in the 14th century strongly shook the authority of the Church and announced the end of the golden age of the Medieval. The religious reform movement initiated by Martin Luther caused a great schism in the originally unified Catholic civilization in Europe, resulting in long-term North-South opposition in Europe. Many Germanic kingdoms in the north became Protestant countries, no longer bound by the Holy See, and began to seek the power of the country to completely surpass the influence of the south. At the same time, this competitive relationship led to the centralization of Catholic monarchs, with Louis XIV of France as the representative, seeking a rich country and strong soldiers to compete with Protestant countries for hegemony. Although they did not apostasy like King Henry VIII of England, those Catholic monarchs no longer believed in God like their ancestor Saint Louis. They also used the growth of the Urban middle class to crowd out the power of the Pope, and the feudal system declined with the decline of the Church. After the 30-year war of religions in the 17th century, because of the betrayal of the Kingdom of Frmance, Catholic countries no longer have the ability to eliminate apostates in the north, and the Holy Roman Empire had to sign the Treaty of Westphalia. So far, clear borders between sovereign states have become important and become the foundation of future nation states. The religious war that killed nearly 8 million people also caused a large number of nobles to disappear, and the stability of the land inheritance for thousands of years was broken.

随着大航海时代的殖民主义扩张与全球贸易形成以后,城市和商业的繁荣促成了资产阶级的出现,这使得金钱变得比土地更贵重。这个新的资产阶级起初主要来自从事商业的中产阶级市民,他们以掌控了金融业的犹太人为主,处于以贵族和农民形成的封建体系之外,直到欧洲工业化以后大量农民和小贵族成为市民,构成了近代资产阶级的主要来源。商业发展之后,过去盛行的封建忠诚不再重要,人们都希望一夜暴富,这严重冲击了依赖土地的中世纪庄园经济。雇佣兵的盛行,骑士的效忠精神不再受人青睐,直到国家军队的出现彻底取代其传统地位,进一步削弱了封建制度。古腾堡印刷机的发明,教育的普及对平民识字率的提升,都鼓励了普通人参与政治的热情。平民开始觉得贵族跟自己并没有本质区别,因为自己靠资本积累同样可以获得权势。不同于中古时代早期,那时候普通的部落成员依赖于贵族武士的保护,而现在自己只要有钱就能获得武装自卫能力,为什么还要继续被那些贵族统治,这不公平,便开始要求民主共和。就这样伴随着贵族阶层权力失落,社会结构产生了巨变,中世纪经典的封建制度逐渐解体。这之后的经济主力从农业转为了商业,基于土地的封建主义让位于基于金钱的资本主义。

Following the expansion of colonialism and the formation of global trade with the Great Maritime Age, the prosperity of cities and commerce led to the emergence of the bourgeoisie, making money more valuable than land. At first, this new bourgeoisie mainly came from middle-class citizens engaged in business. They were mainly Jews who controlled the financial industry, they were outside the feudal system formed by nobles and farmers. Until the industrialization of Europe, a large number of farmers and small nobles became citizens. It constitutes the main source of the modern bourgeoisie. After business development, the feudal loyalty that prevailed in the past is no longer important, and people want to get rich quick, which severely impacted the Medieval manorial economy that relied on land. The prevalence of mercenaries and the spirit of allegiance of knights was no longer favored, until the emergence of the national army completely replaced its traditional position, which further weakened the feudal system. The invention of the Gutenberg printing press and the popularization of education has increased the literacy rate of civilians, these have encouraged the enthusiasm for civilians to participate in politics. The civilians began to feel that the nobility was not fundamentally different from them, because they could also gain power through capital accumulation. It’s no longer the same as the early Medieval era. At that time, the ordinary members of the tribe depended on the protection of the noble warriors, and now they can obtain armed self-defense ability as long as they have money, why should they continue to be ruled by those nobles? This is not fair, and they began to demand a democratic republic. In this way, along with the loss of power of the aristocracy, the social structure has undergone tremendous changes, and the classic feudal system of the Medieval gradually disintegrated. After that, the main economic force shifted from agriculture to commerce, and land-based feudalism gave way to money-based capitalism.

贵族没落以后,掌控地方权力的平民资产阶级崛起,并最终控制了国家政权。他们在启蒙运动之后奉行自由主义民主制,主张人人平等,少数服从多数,反对传统的君主制。英国、美国、法国陆续掀起了革命,自由主义者跟当时的绝对君主制的王权成了政治上的两个极端运动。欧陆列强之间为了平衡各自的经济利益和权力分配,他们通过18世纪以来的数次战争将国界逐渐稳定下来。这期间殖民地国家也纷纷独立,结束了殖民时代。在各种条约中又陆续出现了众多新的国家。随着资产阶级的壮大,民族的认同在新教国家最先出现。当拉丁语的至高地位丧失之后,新教的传教士们通过使用本地语言的圣经将各国民族语言发明了出来,在经济利益上统一的国内市场也促进了民族认同。因与改教后的王室冲突较小,北方的新教国家大多保留了君主制,但也通过立宪保护了资产阶级的财富不被王室与贵族夺取,让议会权力强于君主。其中大英帝国的维多利亚时代创造了一个繁荣的社会,让中世纪文化得以在19世纪复兴,例如出现了诸多伟大的复兴哥特式建筑,以及前拉斐尔派的精美画作。因为天主教君主制与其共和主义的理念完全不相容,大革命后掌控权力后的法兰西和意大利等地资产阶级彻底推翻了君主制,建立了共和国,以官僚取代贵族统治。在这一运动中,最后的天主教王国哈布斯堡家族的奥匈帝国在一战后解体,西班牙帝国也发生内战,王室没落,宣告了中世纪封建制度彻底结束,民族国家开始盛行的时代。

After the decline of the nobility, the populace bourgeoisie, who controlled local power, rose up and eventually controlled the state power. After the Enlightenment, they pursued a liberal democracy, advocated equality for all, the minority obeys the majority, and opposed the traditional monarchy. Revolutions began in Britain, America, and France. The liberals and the absolute monarchy at that time became two extreme political movements. During this period, the colonial countries also became independent, ending the colonial era. Many new countries have appeared in various treaties. With the growth of the bourgeoisie, nation identity first appeared in Protestant countries. When the Latin supremacy lost, the Protestant missionaries invented the national languages of various countries through the use of the Bible in the local language. The domestic market with unified economic interests also promoted national identity. Since the conflict between the bourgeoisie and the royal family after the Reformation was relatively small, most of the Protestant countries in the north retained the monarchy, but they also protected the wealth of the bourgeoisie from being seized by the royal family and aristocracy through constitutionalism, making the parliamentary power stronger than the monarch. Among them, the Victorian era of the British Empire created a prosperous society and allowed the revival of medieval culture in the 19th century. For example, there have been many great revival Gothic buildings and exquisite paintings of the pre-Raphaelites. Because the Catholic monarchy was completely incompatible with the ideals of a Republicanism, the bourgeoisie in France and Italy after the Revolution completely overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, and replaced the noble rule with bureaucracy. In this movement, the Austro-Hungarian Empire of the Habsburg family, the last Catholic kingdom, disintegrated after World War I, and the Spanish Empire also suffered a civil war. The royal family fell, proclaiming the complete end of the medieval feudal system and the beginning of the era of nation-states.

天主教会的信仰中心,罗马教廷作为封建体系的一部分,在这一历史浪潮中自然也不能够安稳度过,它也随着封建制度的瓦解而灭亡。教皇国的绝大部分领土就在1870年被意大利全部吞并了,虽然如今仍然有梵蒂冈城国残存,但在梵二会议之后,这个新的教廷已经不再是封建体系的主导者,而成为了一个资产阶级统治下的傀儡。

The Holy See, the faith center of the Catholic Church, as a part of the feudal system, naturally cannot survive this historical wave, and it will also perish with the collapse of the feudal system. Most of the territory of the Papal State was completely annexed by the Republic of Italy in 1870. Although the Vatican City State still remains today, but after the Second Vatican Council, this new Holy See is no longer the leader of the feudal system and has become A puppet under the rule of the bourgeoisie.

造成1600多万人丧生的一战使得残存的老欧洲贵族阶层一蹶不振,再也无力主导国家政权。旧秩序被彻底瓦解后,将人类之恶表现得淋漓尽致的无产阶级共产主义和基于种族主义的纳粹便开始趁机兴风作浪,他们都是以财富取代了宗教信仰的资产阶级社会中的附属产物。新兴的资产阶级只有在不受欧洲战争波及的新大陆才真正壮大起来,美国独立以后彻底摆脱了来自旧大陆的控制,资本家们得到了前所未有的权力。二战之后的欧亚大陆千疮百孔,大英帝国一去不返,只有美洲新大陆的美国独善其身,使其有能力支配世界,创造了取而代之的新秩序,即延续至今的威尔逊主义。为了防止旧世界再次复辟过去那些互相争霸的大帝国,并阻止纳粹主义复活和苏联共产主义的扩张,威尔逊主义便极力推行在旧世界,也就是欧亚大陆为主的地区实行民主制度,依靠民族自决原则建立各民族国家,奥匈帝国解体后巴尔干半岛新建构出来的各民族就是其典型成果。在美国全球主义的支配下,20世纪有很多新的民族被建构出来,也促成了苏联不彻底的解体,波兰的复国。印度则因保留了大英帝国的封建影响而维持了多民族的稳定联邦关系,如今的旧大陆地区只有中国作为大帝国的形态仍然未转化成巴尔干式的多民族国家并立的情形,由一个独裁的共产党统治着相当于整个欧洲的庞大领土,以虚假的中华民族主义维持大一统集权。

The World War I, which killed more than 16 million people, completely depressed the remaining old European aristocracy and make them was no longer able to dominate state power. After the old order was completely dismantled, proletarian communism and the Nazis based on racism began to create chaos and manifest the evils of mankind to the extreme, they were all subsidiary products of a bourgeois society where wealth replaced religious beliefs. The emerging bourgeoisie can only truly grow in the New World, which is not affected by European wars. After independence, the United States completely got rid of the control from the old continent,Capitalists have gained unprecedented power. After the two world wars, the Eurasian continent was in ruins, and the empire on which the sun never sets of Great Britain was finally sunset. Only the United States of the New World America maintained its vitality, enabling it to dominate the world order, creating a new order that replaced it, the Wilsonism that has continued to this day. To prevent the old world from restoring the empires that competed for hegemony in the past, And prevent the resurrection of Nazism and the expansion of Soviet communism, Wilsonism strives to promote a democratic system in the old world, which is mainly Eurasia, Relying on the principle of national self-determination to establish nation states, After the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the newly constructed ethnic groups in the Balkans are typical results. Under the domination of American globalism, many new nations were constructed in the 20th century, which also contributed to the incomplete disintegration of the Soviet Union and the restoration of Poland. Because India has retained the feudal influence of the British Empire, it stably maintained a multi-ethnic federation. The current Old Continent area only has China as an empire, which has not yet been transformed into a Balkan-style multi-ethnic state, or a federal state like Russia, but a dictatorial Communist Party rules a huge territory and population equivalent to the entire Europe, enslaving so many nations, maintaining unity with false Chinese nationalism.

其实资产阶级主导的自由民主制度下的民族国家也是封建君主制王国的一种演化。因为两者的本质都是基于土地的,只不过范围不同,各个民族国家就相当于是现代世界中主导了全球化的美国这个新的“神圣罗马帝国”之下的众多封建领主。民主的本质就是自治,自己的事情自己管,是简单化了的封建。真正的实行民主原则就必须先要建构出合理的民族共同体。

In fact, the nation-state under the liberal democracy dominated by the bourgeoisie is also an evolution of the feudal monarchy kingdom. Because their essence is based on the land, but the scope is different, Each nation-state is equivalent to many feudal lords under the new “Holy Roman Empire”——the United States, which has dominated globalization in the modern world. The essence of democracy is autonomy, responsible for their own things by themselves, and it is a simplified feudalistic. To truly implement democratic principles, we must first construct a reasonable national community.

自由民主制度通过对私有财产的保护,保障了小共同体自治的政治权力,使其不受大政府的国家官僚控制。官僚总是伴随着专制帝国,大政府官僚国家的典型便是两千多年前东亚的秦帝国及现代的共产主义国家,帝国统治者以编户齐民和流官制将社会的自发组织打散,原子化的小家庭与个人在国家面前便不堪一击,被剥夺了个人财产的拥有权后,其资源由国家随意征用。所以说东亚的秦帝国和路易十四那种中央集权化的绝对君主制并不是封建制度,虽然表面上仍然是君主制,但他们在本质上已经和共产主义国家没有区别,只不过共产党成为了国家的君主。除了在中国已经用了两千多年,官僚制也在拜占庭帝国和波斯帝国使用过。来自东方世界的这种官僚治国技术在启蒙运动以后传到了欧洲,被那些实行绝对君主制的皇帝和那些推翻了君主制的共和制国家使用,特别是共产主义国家。

Through the protection of private property, the liberal democratic system protects the political power of autonomy of small communities from the control of state bureaucrats of large governments. The bureaucracy always accompanies the autocratic empire, the typical bureaucratic state of the big government is the Qin Empire in East Asia more than two thousand years ago and the modern communist country. The rulers of the empire used “Bianhu” and bureaucrat to break up the spontaneous organization of society. The atomized small families and individuals have no resistance in front of the country, after being deprived of the ownership of personal property, its resources are requisitioned by the state at will. Therefore, the Qin Empire in East Asia and the centralized absolute monarchy of Louis XIV is not feudal systems. Although they are still monarchies on the surface, they are essentially no different from communist countries, except that the Communist Party has become The monarch of the country. In addition to being used in China Empire for more than two thousand years, the bureaucracy was also used in the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire. This bureaucratic statecraft from the Eastern world spread to Europe after the Enlightenment, and was used by emperors that practiced absolute monarchy and republic countries that overthrew the monarchy, especially communist countries.

由于民族国家不再由贵族作为统治者,官僚就取而代之,这使得民族国家里很容易出现民粹主义的问题。现在欧洲那些左派自由主义者主导的大政府福利社会,也由于官僚主义,已将资产阶级民主搞成了大众民主,将封建性彻底抹除。这样的大政府让官僚操办一切,就使得社会丧失了活力。世俗主义者控制的政府因为排除了教会的影响,使得人们对宗教信仰漠不关心,出现极低的生育率,人口的不断减少也是难民危机的主因。不过自由民主制度也让一些民族独立运动以和平的全民公投的方式寻求建国,比如苏格兰人。虽然现有的民族国家往往都是通过战争建立了国家政权之后,再通过对教育的控制等手段来后期建构起民族认同的。

Since the nation-state is no longer ruled by the nobility, the bureaucracy takes its place, which makes it easy about the problem of populism in the nation-state. Now the big government welfare society dominated by left-wing liberals in Europe has also turned bourgeois democracy into popular democracy due to bureaucracy, completely eradicating feudalism. Such a big government lets the bureaucracy take care of everything, which makes society lose its vitality. Because the secularists controlled the government and excluded the influence of the Church, people were indifferent to religious beliefs, the fertility rate was extremely low, and the declining population was the main cause of the refugee crisis. However, the liberal democratic system has also allowed some national independence movements, such as the Scots, to seek a nation by peaceful referendum. Although the existing nation-states often establish national power through wars, they later construct national identity through means such as education control.

对于当代美国主导的世界秩序中,实行由资产阶级统治的民主制度,通过民族国家最能够保障家庭与地方自治的权力不受侵犯,虽然其在普遍实行近一个世纪后的结果并不算理想,只不过是选择了一种最不糟糕的办法。由于自由民主作为现代新兴的制度是依靠资产阶级的强大为基础的,依赖于帝国的普世和平而存在,并不比在人类历史中延续数千年了的封建制度更有生命力。一旦这个由美国资本家主导的全球化商业文明没落,特别是毁灭性的世界大战之后,使得人类重归农业为主的状态时,古老的封建制度将再次复兴起来。而某些局部地区如果陷入连年战乱,封建也能取代大众民主。这就是为什么我们的幽燕独立运动既是在建构民族,同时也是推崇封建君主制的。因为中国解体以后必然会是长期的军阀混战状态,人民会更加依赖于武装跟宗教组织,随着城市和商业的衰落,典型的民主将无法实行。

For the contemporary American-dominated world order, a democratic system ruled by the bourgeoisie is implemented. Only through the nation-state can the power of family and local autonomy be protected from violation. Although the results after nearly a century of its widespread implementation were not ideal, it was just a choice of the least not worst method. Since liberal democracy, as a modern emerging system, is based on the power of the bourgeoisie and relies on the universal peace of the empire, it is no more vigorous than the feudal system that has lasted for thousands of years in human history. Once this globalized commercial civilization dominated by American capitalists declines, especially after the devastating world war, when mankind returns to the state of agriculture as the mainstay, the ancient feudal system will be revived again. And if certain local areas are caught in years of wars, feudalism can also replace popular democracy. This is why our Yuyencia independence movement is not only constructing a nation, but also advocating feudal monarchy. Because after the disintegration of China is bound to be a long-term warlord state, people will be more dependent on armed with faith-based organizations, leading to the decline of the city and business, typical of democracy will not be implemented.

人类的历史根本上是由天主的意志所决定的。地球轨道和太阳活动的任何微小变化,都会影响到火山和洋流的稳定,火山灰遮挡阳光以及暖流的减弱都会造成气温降低的小冰期。小冰期里总是伴随着频繁的干旱和洪水,破坏了农业社会赖以为生的根基,粮食的缺乏造成大饥荒,引发迁徙的流民和战争。这又使得瘟疫变得很容易传播,大瘟疫则造成了大量人口丧生并引发社会剧烈动荡,直接决定了帝国兴衰和世界秩序。古罗马帝国的崩溃和中世纪封建繁荣的终结都是这个原因,当今全球扩散的武汉肺炎中国病毒也将是这个时代落幕的标记。因此,一旦天主决定人类世界需要翻盘的时候,任何人类的力量都将无法抗拒,人类所能做的只是顺服天主的意志,祈求靠着对救主的信仰,在方舟内度过“大洪水”,在更新后的世界里重建文明。

The history of mankind is fundamentally determined by the will of God. Any small changes in the earth’s orbit and solar activity will affect the stability of volcanoes and ocean currents, The volcanic ash blocking the sun and the weakening of the warm current will cause the Little Ice Age when the temperature drops. The Little Ice Age was always accompanied by frequent droughts and floods, destroying the foundations of agricultural society, The lack of food caused a great famine, triggered migration and wars. This makes the plague easily spread. The great plague caused the death of a large number of people and caused violent social unrest, which directly determined the rise and fall of the empire and the world order. The collapse of the ancient Roman Empire and the end of feudal prosperity in the Middle Ages was both reasons for this. Today’s global spread of the Wuhan pneumonia Chinese virus will also mark the end of this era. Therefore, once God decides that the human world needs to be renewed, no human force will be able to resist it. All mankind can do is to obey the will of God and pray for the faith in the Savior to survive the “Great Flood” in the Ark and rebuild civilization in the updated world.


One Comment on “什么是民族国家|What’s a nation state

  1. 操你大爺!洋人放嗝屁,你舔貓腚立馬就跟著一起放屁!

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