The concept of “Minzu” originated in Europe, This word is “Nation” in English, which is the same mean as “Guojia” in Chinese, refers to an ethnic group that has a common cultural community. Generally speaking, the elements that constitute an independent nation include: Similar blood, intercommunication languages, common religious beliefs, common customs and origin myths, living in a fixed geographic area, etc., and the members of the ethnic group spontaneously believe that they belong to the same nation, that is, they have consistent internal identity. But in reality, few ethnic groups can fully meet these conditions, Therefore, the modern nation is mainly a constructed political community, that is, a group of people with the same political power can be said to be the same nation.
Since it is a product of construction, a nation in the modern sense does not always exist on the emergence of human civilization. In the Middle Ages before the emergence of the nation state, except for the uncivilized barbarian tribes who just adopted simple customary laws, highly developed societies around the world are implementing the feudal system, especially in medieval Europe, there were no nations with clear geographical boundaries. From the 5th century AD, the Germanic peoples began to convert to Catholicism, a feudal system based on tribal customary law was formed. This is because the Germanic tribes rely on the rule of the warrior elite, the warriors are the most direct protectors of the family and the direct owners of the land, there are no strong central government to intervene. After the establishment of the Frankish kingdom in the early Middle Ages, this tradition continued to protect the autonomous power of local lords. The feudal lords are the actual determinants of the boundaries of the land, not the supreme monarchs that rule the country. The Holy Church maintained the status of an order defender in the feudal system, this is because the Church played a role as an alternative government after the decline of the Roman Empire. Under the circumstances that the Church is widely respected by the entire society, the royal power is restricted by the morality of the Church and cannot completely overwhelm the individual power over the nobles and commoners. Afterwards, the Holy Roman Empire was a model of feudal system, which existed on thousands of years, and finally destruction with the Habsburg family in the early 20th century. At that time, Christian monarchs of various countries in Europe often married each other, and only the royal family and the civilian class existed in the society, there are various religious groups and small communities such as guilds formed by profession, the society is stable and prosperous. At that time, pious belief in God and loyalty to the lords were the most noble qualities.
The proliferation of the Black Death in Europe in the 14th century strongly shook the authority of the Church and announced the end of the golden age of the Medieval. The religious reform movement initiated by Martin Luther caused a great schism in the originally unified Catholic civilization in Europe, resulting in long-term North-South opposition in Europe. Many Germanic kingdoms in the north became Protestant countries, no longer bound by the Holy See, and began to seek the power of the country to completely surpass the influence of the south. At the same time, this competitive relationship led to the centralization of Catholic monarchs, with Louis XIV of France as the representative, seeking a rich country and strong soldiers to compete with Protestant countries for hegemony. Although they did not apostasy like King Henry VIII of England, those Catholic monarchs no longer believed in God like their ancestor Saint Louis. They also used the growth of the Urban middle class to crowd out the power of the Pope, and the feudal system declined with the decline of the Church. After the 30-year war of religions in the 17th century, because of the betrayal of the Kingdom of Frmance, Catholic countries no longer have the ability to eliminate apostates in the north, and the Holy Roman Empire had to sign the Treaty of Westphalia. So far, clear borders between sovereign states have become important and become the foundation of future nation states. The religious war that killed nearly 8 million people also caused a large number of nobles to disappear, and the stability of the land inheritance for thousands of years was broken.
Following the expansion of colonialism and the formation of global trade with the Great Maritime Age, the prosperity of cities and commerce led to the emergence of the bourgeoisie, making money more valuable than land. At first, this new bourgeoisie mainly came from middle-class citizens engaged in business. They were mainly Jews who controlled the financial industry, they were outside the feudal system formed by nobles and farmers. Until the industrialization of Europe, a large number of farmers and small nobles became citizens. It constitutes the main source of the modern bourgeoisie. After business development, the feudal loyalty that prevailed in the past is no longer important, and people want to get rich quick, which severely impacted the Medieval manorial economy that relied on land. The prevalence of mercenaries and the spirit of allegiance of knights was no longer favored, until the emergence of the national army completely replaced its traditional position, which further weakened the feudal system. The invention of the Gutenberg printing press and the popularization of education has increased the literacy rate of civilians, these have encouraged the enthusiasm for civilians to participate in politics. The civilians began to feel that the nobility was not fundamentally different from them, because they could also gain power through capital accumulation. It’s no longer the same as the early Medieval era. At that time, the ordinary members of the tribe depended on the protection of the noble warriors, and now they can obtain armed self-defense ability as long as they have money, why should they continue to be ruled by those nobles? This is not fair, and they began to demand a democratic republic. In this way, along with the loss of power of the aristocracy, the social structure has undergone tremendous changes, and the classic feudal system of the Medieval gradually disintegrated. After that, the main economic force shifted from agriculture to commerce, and land-based feudalism gave way to money-based capitalism.
After the decline of the nobility, the populace bourgeoisie, who controlled local power, rose up and eventually controlled the state power. After the Enlightenment, they pursued a liberal democracy, advocated equality for all, the minority obeys the majority, and opposed the traditional monarchy. Revolutions began in Britain, America, and France. The liberals and the absolute monarchy at that time became two extreme political movements. During this period, the colonial countries also became independent, ending the colonial era. Many new countries have appeared in various treaties. With the growth of the bourgeoisie, nation identity first appeared in Protestant countries. When the Latin supremacy lost, the Protestant missionaries invented the national languages of various countries through the use of the Bible in the local language. The domestic market with unified economic interests also promoted national identity. Since the conflict between the bourgeoisie and the royal family after the Reformation was relatively small, most of the Protestant countries in the north retained the monarchy, but they also protected the wealth of the bourgeoisie from being seized by the royal family and aristocracy through constitutionalism, making the parliamentary power stronger than the monarch. Among them, the Victorian era of the British Empire created a prosperous society and allowed the revival of medieval culture in the 19th century. For example, there have been many great revival Gothic buildings and exquisite paintings of the pre-Raphaelites. Because the Catholic monarchy was completely incompatible with the ideals of a Republicanism, the bourgeoisie in France and Italy after the Revolution completely overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, and replaced the noble rule with bureaucracy. In this movement, the Austro-Hungarian Empire of the Habsburg family, the last Catholic kingdom, disintegrated after World War I, and the Spanish Empire also suffered a civil war. The royal family fell, proclaiming the complete end of the medieval feudal system and the beginning of the era of nation-states.
The Holy See, the faith center of the Catholic Church, as a part of the feudal system, naturally cannot survive this historical wave, and it will also perish with the collapse of the feudal system. Most of the territory of the Papal State was completely annexed by the Republic of Italy in 1870. Although the Vatican City State still remains today, but after the Second Vatican Council, this new Holy See is no longer the leader of the feudal system and has become A puppet under the rule of the bourgeoisie.
The World War I, which killed more than 16 million people, completely depressed the remaining old European aristocracy and make them was no longer able to dominate state power. After the old order was completely dismantled, proletarian communism and the Nazis based on racism began to create chaos and manifest the evils of mankind to the extreme, they were all subsidiary products of a bourgeois society where wealth replaced religious beliefs. The emerging bourgeoisie can only truly grow in the New World, which is not affected by European wars. After independence, the United States completely got rid of the control from the old continent,Capitalists have gained unprecedented power. After the two world wars, the Eurasian continent was in ruins, and the empire on which the sun never sets of Great Britain was finally sunset. Only the United States of the New World America maintained its vitality, enabling it to dominate the world order, creating a new order that replaced it, the Wilsonism that has continued to this day. To prevent the old world from restoring the empires that competed for hegemony in the past, And prevent the resurrection of Nazism and the expansion of Soviet communism, Wilsonism strives to promote a democratic system in the old world, which is mainly Eurasia, Relying on the principle of national self-determination to establish nation states, After the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the newly constructed ethnic groups in the Balkans are typical results. Under the domination of American globalism, many new nations were constructed in the 20th century, which also contributed to the incomplete disintegration of the Soviet Union and the restoration of Poland. Because India has retained the feudal influence of the British Empire, it stably maintained a multi-ethnic federation. The current Old Continent area only has China as an empire, which has not yet been transformed into a Balkan-style multi-ethnic state, or a federal state like Russia, but a dictatorial Communist Party rules a huge territory and population equivalent to the entire Europe, enslaving so many nations, maintaining unity with false Chinese nationalism.
In fact, the nation-state under the liberal democracy dominated by the bourgeoisie is also an evolution of the feudal monarchy kingdom. Because their essence is based on the land, but the scope is different, Each nation-state is equivalent to many feudal lords under the new “Holy Roman Empire”——the United States, which has dominated globalization in the modern world. The essence of democracy is autonomy, responsible for their own things by themselves, and it is a simplified feudalistic. To truly implement democratic principles, we must first construct a reasonable national community.
Through the protection of private property, the liberal democratic system protects the political power of autonomy of small communities from the control of state bureaucrats of large governments. The bureaucracy always accompanies the autocratic empire, the typical bureaucratic state of the big government is the Qin Empire in East Asia more than two thousand years ago and the modern communist country. The rulers of the empire used “Bianhu” and bureaucrat to break up the spontaneous organization of society. The atomized small families and individuals have no resistance in front of the country, after being deprived of the ownership of personal property, its resources are requisitioned by the state at will. Therefore, the Qin Empire in East Asia and the centralized absolute monarchy of Louis XIV is not feudal systems. Although they are still monarchies on the surface, they are essentially no different from communist countries, except that the Communist Party has become The monarch of the country. In addition to being used in China Empire for more than two thousand years, the bureaucracy was also used in the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire. This bureaucratic statecraft from the Eastern world spread to Europe after the Enlightenment, and was used by emperors that practiced absolute monarchy and republic countries that overthrew the monarchy, especially communist countries.
Since the nation-state is no longer ruled by the nobility, the bureaucracy takes its place, which makes it easy about the problem of populism in the nation-state. Now the big government welfare society dominated by left-wing liberals in Europe has also turned bourgeois democracy into popular democracy due to bureaucracy, completely eradicating feudalism. Such a big government lets the bureaucracy take care of everything, which makes society lose its vitality. Because the secularists controlled the government and excluded the influence of the Church, people were indifferent to religious beliefs, the fertility rate was extremely low, and the declining population was the main cause of the refugee crisis. However, the liberal democratic system has also allowed some national independence movements, such as the Scots, to seek a nation by peaceful referendum. Although the existing nation-states often establish national power through wars, they later construct national identity through means such as education control.
For the contemporary American-dominated world order, a democratic system ruled by the bourgeoisie is implemented. Only through the nation-state can the power of family and local autonomy be protected from violation. Although the results after nearly a century of its widespread implementation were not ideal, it was just a choice of the least not worst method. Since liberal democracy, as a modern emerging system, is based on the power of the bourgeoisie and relies on the universal peace of the empire, it is no more vigorous than the feudal system that has lasted for thousands of years in human history. Once this globalized commercial civilization dominated by American capitalists declines, especially after the devastating world war, when mankind returns to the state of agriculture as the mainstay, the ancient feudal system will be revived again. And if certain local areas are caught in years of wars, feudalism can also replace popular democracy. This is why our Yuyencia independence movement is not only constructing a nation, but also advocating feudal monarchy. Because after the disintegration of China is bound to be a long-term warlord state, people will be more dependent on armed with faith-based organizations, leading to the decline of the city and business, typical of democracy will not be implemented.
The history of mankind is fundamentally determined by the will of God. Any small changes in the earth’s orbit and solar activity will affect the stability of volcanoes and ocean currents, The volcanic ash blocking the sun and the weakening of the warm current will cause the Little Ice Age when the temperature drops. The Little Ice Age was always accompanied by frequent droughts and floods, destroying the foundations of agricultural society, The lack of food caused a great famine, triggered migration and wars. This makes the plague easily spread. The great plague caused the death of a large number of people and caused violent social unrest, which directly determined the rise and fall of the empire and the world order. The collapse of the ancient Roman Empire and the end of feudal prosperity in the Middle Ages was both reasons for this. Today’s global spread of the Wuhan pneumonia Chinese virus will also mark the end of this era. Therefore, once God decides that the human world needs to be renewed, no human force will be able to resist it. All mankind can do is to obey the will of God and pray for the faith in the Savior to survive the “Great Flood” in the Ark and rebuild civilization in the updated world.